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Nutmeg

Botanical Myristica fragrans 
Arab.جوزة الطيب, جوز بوّة جَوْزَة الْطِيب, جوزَة الْطِيب Jouza at-Teeb, Jouza al-Teeb, Josat at-Tib, Josat al-Tib, Jowz buwwa
Assameseজাইফল Jaiphol
Bengaliজায়ফল Jayphal
Chin.豆蔻樹 [dauh kau syuh], 肉豆蔻 [yuhk dauh kau] Dauh kau syuh, Yuhk dauh kau
Du.Nootmuskaat
Farsiجوز هندی Djus hendi, Jouz hendi
Fr.Noix de muscade, Muscade
G.Muskatnuß
Heb.אגוז מוסקט אֶגוֹז מוּסקָט Egos muskat, Egoz musqat
Gujrathiજાયફળ Jaypatri
Hindiजायफल Jaiphal
It.Noce moscata
Jap.ナツメグ Natumegu
Kannadaಜಾಕಾಯಿ, ಜಾತೀಫಲ Jakayi, Jatiphala
Kor.너트멕, 육두구 Neotumek, Notumek, Yuktugu
Maithiliजाफर Japhar
Malayalamജാതി, ജാതിക്കാ, ജാതിക്കായ്, ജാതികോശം Jathi, Jathikka, Jathikkayu, Jathikosham
Marathiजायफळ Jayphal
Nepaliजाइफल Jaiphal
Punjabiਜੈਫਲ Jaiphal
SanskritJatiphala
Tamilஆதிபலம், சாதிக்காய், சாதிப்பூ, ஜாதி காய் Atipalam, Jatikkai, Jatippu
Teleguజాజికాయ Jajikaya
Thaiจันบ้าน, จันทน์เทศ, ลูกจันท Chan thet, Chan ban, Chan ban, Chand nattes, Luk chand
Urduجائپھل Jaiphal
Sp.Moscada, Nuez moscada

Nutmeg or Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas of Indonesia, or Spice Islands. Until the mid 19th century this was the world's only source. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit, nutmeg and mace.

Nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree, roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) wide, and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.2 and 0.4 oz) dried, while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or arillus of the seed. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees, including essential oils, extracted oleoresins, and nutmeg butter (see below).

The outer surface of the nutmeg bruises easily. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called "Morne Delice". In Indonesia, the fruit is also made into jam, called selei buah pala, or sliced finely, cooked and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala ("nutmeg sweets"). The most important species commercially is the Common or Fragrant Nutmeg Myristica fragrans, native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia; it is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean, especially in Grenada. It also grows in Kerala, a state in the south part of India. Other species include Papuan Nutmeg M. argentea from New Guinea, and Bombay Nutmeg M. malabarica from India, called Jaiphal in Hindi; both are used as adulterants of M. fragrans products.

Nutmeg is not a nut, but the kernel of an apricot-like fruit. Mace is an arillus, a thin leathery tissue between the stone and the pulp; it is bright red to purple when harvested, but after drying changes to amber.

In the nutmeg trade, broken nutmegs that have been infested by pests are referred to as BWP grade (broken, wormy and punky). BWP grade nutmegs must be used only for distillation of oil of nutmeg and extraction of nutmeg oleoresin. Occasionally, however, they are ground and sold illegally. For the very real danger of molds producing aflatoxines on BWP nuts, consumers should buy their nutmegs as a whole, and grind for themselves. Whole nutmegs will also keep their flavour much longer.

The pulp of the nutmeg fruit is tough, almost woody, and very sour. In Indonesia, it is used to make a delicious jam with pleasant nutmeg aroma (selei buah pala). Other uses of the pulp are not known to me.

See also: Mace
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutmeg , http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Myri_fra.html
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