Botanical Ocimum basilicum; Pharm. Herba Basilici 
E.Basilie, Sweet Basil
Fr.Basilic, Basilic commun, Herbe royale
G.Basilikum, Basilienkraut, Königskraut
Hindiबन तुलसी, जंगली तुलसी, तुलसी, Ban tulsi, Jangli tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum), Tulsi
Malayalamതുളസി, കൃഷ്ണതുളസി, രാമതുളസി, Pachcha (?), Thulasi*, Sivathulasi*, Krishnathulasi*; Ramathulasi (Ocimum gratissimum)
Thaiโหระพา, กะเพรา, กะเพา, ผักอีตู่, แมงลัก, กะเพราช้าง, ยี่หร่า Horapa, Horapha; Kaprao, Krapau, Kapao (Ocimum tenuiflorum); Phak iotu, Manglak (Ocimum citriodorum); Yihra, Kaprao-chang (Ocimum gratissimum)
Vi.É dỏ*, É tía, É trắng, Cây húng quế, Cây rau é, Húng, Húng giỏi, Húng quế, Lá quế, Nhu tía*, Rau quế E do*, E tia, E trang, Cay hung que, Cay rau e, Hung, Hung gioi, Hung que, La que, Nhu tia*, Rau que

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) (pronounced /ˈbæzəl/ or /ˈbeɪzəl/), of the Family Lamiaceae (mints), is a tender low-growing herb. Basil is a culinary herb prominently featured in Italian cuisine, and also plays a major role in the Southeast Asian cuisines of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The plant tastes somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, sweet smell.

There are many varieties of basil. That which is used in Italian food is typically called sweet basil, as opposed to Thai basil, lemon basil and holy basil, which are used in Asia. While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates, including African Blue and Holy Thai basil.

Basil is originally native to Iran, India and other tropical regions of Asia, having been cultivated there for more than 5,000 years.

Indian and South-East Asian names for the so-called sacred basil are marked with an asterisk in the list above. This cultivar (Ocimum sanctum = O. tenuiflorum) is characterized by an intensive sweet-camphoraceous fragrance; in India, it is not much used as a culinary herb (although there are scattered reports of such usage), but has a strong religious meaning, being sacred to Vishnu [विष्णु] and symbolizing either his wife Lakshmi [लक्ष्मी] or the wives of his various avatars.

Leaves; frequently, the entire herb (all aerial parts) is harvested. Best harvesting season is before flowering. Basil leaves should always be used fresh, as they lose most of their flavour within a few weeks after drying. However, in the Georgian spice mixture khmeli-suneli, dried basil is employed (see blue fenugreek). The seeds of basil have some use as thickening agent in Thailand, but do not share the leaves’ fragrance

Synonym: Holy Basil, Sweet Basil
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil, http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Ocim_bas.html
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